Saturday, May 23, 2020

How Business With The Right E Commerce Platform Essay

How to Start Small Business with the Right E-commerce Platform You have all what it takes to start a business, from creativity, hard work to determination and what not. Yet, you feel helpless because you don’t have one most important thing, MONEY! Now what? Gone are the days when you have to take a large amount of loan from a bank to start your business. Thanks to the technology that makes it way too easy to earn money online. Whether you are a home maker with a desire to show your creativity to the world or a retired gentleman who still wants to be the bread-winner of your family. It’s never late to start weaving your dream with just a bit of knowledge about e-commerce platform is all you need. For which I am here to enlighten you about e-commerce platform and there pros and cons. Things you should know about E-commerce Platforms Before starting you should know what e-commerce platform is? Similar to brick and mortar shop, e-commerce or electronic commerce is a software solution that offers merchants to build a storefront online and to conduct transaction. The main components of an e-commerce platform are storefront, shopping cart and payment system. According to the latest trend, e-commerce is taking a large portion of retail sales around the world. In which U.S is the first one. What fuels the e-commerce revolution more are the easy-to-use platforms. There are two types of e-commerce platforms hosted and self-hosted open source. The hosted platforms are billedShow MoreRelatedProject Management and Business1537 Words   |  7 PagesBest Practice / Template Files / ïÆ'” SAMPLE: E-commerce RFP E-commerce Platform and Third-Party Logistics Guidance Notes, Checklist and Templates Sample only, please download the full report from: E-commerce RFP Sample only, please download the full repo rt from: Published 2009 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproducedRead MoreAdvantages And Disadvantages Of E-Commerce899 Words   |  4 PagesInternet, so this essay will address the problems facing old industries adapting to O2O e-commerce and will propose several solutions. How to avoid being eliminated in the new e-commerce? The traditional physical industry facing enormous challenges.O2O business model provides a solution of e-commerce in traditional physical industries. The model of O2O shopping platform refers to a business model in which the e-commerce corporations or merchants, who, through the establishment of physical stores, expandRead MoreThe Impact Of E Commerce On Retail Industry1697 Words   |  7 Pagesimpact of E-Commerce on the ‘Retail Industry’ August 8 2016 The Findings and Analysis of customer information on an e-commerce platform. The Improved Marketing techniques of e-commerce. Security issues associated with conducting business over the internet and the methods used to combat these security vulnerabilities’ on e-commerce and the use of social media e-commerce the conventional method of conducting business today â€Æ' The Main Elements of E-Commerce and the impact of E-Commerce on ‘RetailRead MoreWhy Ebay Is The Best Model For The Integration Of All The Aspects Of E Commerce1393 Words   |  6 Pagesin the economic growth market. Thus those who have managed to stake out their niche business in the ecommerce market are leaps and bounds above those who are now just starting to see the relevancy of this new market. As businesses and organizations all look for ways to pull their bottom lines up. They are all looking at the ecommerce market place and are taking notice of the ecommerce market leaders and seeing how they can emulate their success (eBay, Annual Report 2011, 2012). During this caseRead MoreThe Role Of Social Media On Global E Commerce1507 Words   |  7 PagesThe Role of Social Media in Global e-Commerce Name Affiliated Institution E-commerce is short for electronic commerce where the participants (companies) trade their products and services using computer networks. The buyers and sellers can use platforms like mobile commerce, electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, online transaction processing, data collection, internet marketing, electronic data interchange and inventory management systems. Currently, most of these transactions have takenRead MoreThe Strengths And Weaknesses Of The Three Companies1647 Words   |  7 Pagessupply chain to retailers or the final customers. strength 2. PayPal is available to any individual online or offline or business with an e-mail. Strength Compare the three companies’ e-commerce business models. Comparison Walmart Amazon eBay E-commerce business models E-tailer: this allows Walmart to do business offline through its stores and online through its website. E-tailer: It depends only on its online retail store. Market creator: It provides a digital environment where buyers andRead MoreThe Secret to the Success of Amazon1488 Words   |  6 Pagesin line. Online however, and recommendations or the number of buttons pressed can lead to empting the shopping cart. Amazon was ahead of this when it lunched it’s â€Å"Login and pay with Amazon† function. This surly add to the already dominance of e-commerce by Amazon. When a product that is in short supply Amazon lets them know. â€Å"While it likely happens subconsciously, the only three left and short supply messages create a sense of urgency and that what you want is a popular product. One other thingRead MoreBusiness Models Of Internet Finance1699 Words   |  7 Pagescomprised of payment and settlement services, sales of asset management prod uctsï ¼Å'and financing. Without discussing any one particular area in depth, this paper is intended to provide a broad overview of each of the business models of internet finance in China, their development and how they interact with the traditional financial sector. I. Introduction Internet finance has started in China years ago with online settlement and payment products. However, it is only in recent years, with the widespreadRead MoreAlibaba Group1556 Words   |  7 PagesALIBABA Group Holding Brief History. Alibaba cooperation is a global wide Internet company founded by Jack Ma, Chinese name Ma Yun.Although Alibaba was founded in 1999, the story of how the company came to be actually dates back to 1995, when Jack Ma was on a trip to the U.S. and first became exposed to the Internet. As the story goes, he tried searching for the word beer on Yahoo but the search results did not turn up a single Chinese option. In fact, he could hardly find anythingRead MoreImpact Of E Commerce On Business Essay1250 Words   |  5 Pages IMPACT OF E-COMMERCE ON BUSINESS Name Institution Task 1: 1.1.1 Introduction In the UK, the retail industry is very competitive and every company is looking for a competitive edge over the other. They use techniques such as better services, lower prices, and customer feedback to lure more customers into their businesses. However, one sure way some of the retail shops have been able to break off is through migration to e-commerce and turning their stores into e-business hubs. The strength

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

What Is Language Devoid Of The Social Context Of Its...

To make language devoid of the social context of its creation and use is to dislocate it from which it derives its meanings. Thus ridding it of its use with the only benefit of understanding what it is made up of. However, understanding what language is made of and understanding how to use it are two different things, neither of which will give you a complete understanding of language on its own. Using Gardner’s analogy of language being like a fish you dissect as well as observe within its habitat, to view language as devoid of its social context is to remove the fish from the ocean, the environment in which is serves its purpose. In order to understand what forms it, however, removal and dissection is necessary. Unfortunately, neither†¦show more content†¦An opposing argument would be that one’s thoughts aren’t necessarily used to communicate and yet they still use language. People talk like others and still each of us has our own unique style (Bakhtin , as cited in Gee and Hayes 2011, pg. 7). Our immediate surroundings in the early stages of development shape the language we learn to speak first. Looking at Darwin’s theory of evolution (1859, cited in O’Neil 2013, para. 20) and how the finches from the Galapagos Islands were all divergences of their ancestral species, the language which we develop from our social and cultural backgrounds evolves (obviously in a much faster process than that of the finches). This is the way language changes and yet remains the same. After studying language development in children, Michael Halliday identified seven functions it had for them. The first four help satisfy physical need and the last three help them understand the environment. â€Å"Language is a communal resource from which we all beg borrow and steal† (Gee and Hayes, 2011, pg. 7). It has also been suggested by Gee and Hayes (2011) that it would be highly likely that all human language developed from one original language. We can see a similar idea in Minna Sundberg’s illustration of the Old World Language Families tree, where Indo-European branched off to European, which then branched off to Germanic, West Germanic, Anglo-Frisian and finally English. Even in the book of Genesis it is written that â€Å"the whole word hadShow MoreRelatedAssignment One. ‘†¦.To View Language As Though It Were An1248 Words   |  5 PagesAssignment One ‘†¦.to view language as though it were an object, devoid of the social context of its creation and use, is to dislocate it from the field of human interaction within which language derives the full quality of its meanings†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ (Grugeon and Gardner 2000: 105) Introduction In this essay we will look at different perspectives of language viewed as an object devoid of the social context of its creation and use. However, language becomes truly meaningful only when it’s combined with humanRead MoreLanguage Cannot Be Devoid Of The Social Context Of Its1844 Words   |  8 PagesLanguage cannot be devoid of the social context of its creation and use, as this would dislocate it from the field of human interaction, within which language derives the full quality of its meaning. Social context of language is the way in which we understand novels, stories, conversations and other people; as it is embedded in everything about the ways in which we communicate. To view language in the absence of social context creates significant limitations in its real-world application. The reasonRead MoreTo View Language As Though It Were An Object, Devoid Of1959 Words   |  8 PagesTo view language as though it were an object, devoid of the social context of its creatio n and use, is to dislocate it from the field of human interaction within which language derives the full quality of its meanings. What is language? What makes the English language the most difficult to learn? Language is presented as an object purely through itself, which in turn leads to a problem. The base on how to use language to communicate through Lexis and Syntax, then each subheading of how to communicateRead MoreEnglish Through Social Context Within The Field Of Human Interaction1939 Words   |  8 Pages Language must be considered within its context or it will cease to be useful or meaningful. ‘†¦.to view language as though it were an object, devoid of the social context of its creation and use, is to dislocate it from the field of human interaction within which language derives the full quality of its meanings†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ Grugeon and Gardner, (2000) make a bold statement. However, once the individual investigates the origins of English and how it has adapted, not only through time but how much the sameRead MoreThe Difference Between A Stranger And A Friend1843 Words   |  8 Pagesfriend is a story† (Pinto, 2014) such is the power of language and storytelling. Language is more than a verbal interaction or text written on a page, as it impacts our very human existence on a daily basis. It creates relationships, facilitates learning and crosses cultural divides. The statement by Grugeon and Gardner (2000) clearly states that language cannot be viewed in isolation, devoid of any social context. The learning of language and literacy requires both elements of structured grammarRead MoreLanguage As An Object, Devoid Of The Social Context Of Its Creation And Use1800 Words   |  8 PagesAssignment 1 To view language as though it were an object, devoid of the social context of its creation and use, is to dislocate it from the field of human interaction within which language derives the full quality of its meanings Language, what is language, there isn’t a simple definition for language. People always describes language as, words, or as sounds use to convey messages between people. Yet language is much more than that, there is so much meaning behind it. Language is a living breathingRead MoreAssignment One. â€Å"To View Language As Though It Were An1794 Words   |  8 PagesAssignment One â€Å"to view language as though it were an object, devoid of the social context of its creation and use, is to dislocate it from the field of human interaction within which language derives the full quality of its meanings†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Grugeon and Gardner 2000: 105) Language is a mixed bag of contradictions which all of society use to address the specific needs of their group. A teacher’s role is extreme in the process of understanding language. It is not enough to merely consider theRead MoreAssignment One. ‘†¦.To View Language As Though It Were An1870 Words   |  8 Pages Assignment One ‘†¦.to view language as though it were an object, devoid of the social context of its creation and use, is to dislocate it from the field of human interaction within which language derives the full quality of its meanings†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ (Grugeon and Gardner 2000: 105) Language is a fundamental part of everyday life. Thinking of language as an object implies that it is nothing more than neutral words arranged in a formula or code, which can be interchanged with other words to form new meaningRead MoreA Report On Le Corbusier s Esprit Nouveau, And Several Of These Were Collected And Published Essay1696 Words   |  7 Pagesthe word ‘still’ within its phrasing. Thus, it is useful to investigate the nature of its relevance at its time of publication almost a century ago. A major reason for the widespread reception of Le Corbusier’s ideas can be found in his country’s social conditions during the interwar years. Towards a New Architecture was launched into a France that was experiencing an acute housing shortage. The Paris agglomeration, after drawing in over 350,000 migrants between 1911 and 1921 largely for the warRead MorePolitics and The English Language: George Orwell ´s Literature3705 Words   |  15 Pagesgreates t social commentators of modern history. The thesis which spans over the body of Orwell’s work extrapolates upon the integral influence that writing has on society and to reinstate the integrity of the writer. Orwell’s essays have sparked a plethora of adverse and auxiliary opinions regarding the imperishability of his work, from those whom believe that his efforts are archaic, to those who believe that his craftsmanship of language addresses issues which had once been hidden. No matter what side

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The once called beautiful Canadian Geese is now nicknamed the monster in Canada Free Essays

The once called beautiful Canadian Geese is now nicknamed the monster in Canada. They are now the most widespread species of its kind in North America. They are turning into a continent- wide problem, which are causing people to be frustrated. We will write a custom essay sample on The once called beautiful Canadian Geese is now nicknamed the monster in Canada or any similar topic only for you Order Now The increase in their population is causing drastic measures. Their droppings are contaminating the environment. They are destroying plants and crops, and causing disturbances in the neighborhood. If no possible solution can be found to solve this problem, it can be a disaster. Canadian Geese were supposed to be an endangered species in the early 1900’s due to the hunting of geese by hunters. (Shilts) There were hardly any geese left in the late 1970’s until suddenly some were discovered again. Scientists were so overjoyed that they raised the geese in captivity and then let them go where they once lived. (Herbert) However this was a huge mistake. Their population had increased over the years. Not by a few geese more each year but 11, 000 to 70,000 estimated which was a noticeable dramatic increase. When the geese population stopped migrating, they began to double every five years. As a result, from 70,000 geese at the beginning, it has now increased to 3.5 million and more. (Herbert) The geese population had increased over the years because of a steady and large food supply and safely protected from the hunters. Another reason was due to decrease in predator numbers. The predators such as coyotes, cougars and smaller predators in cities and suburbs didn’t usually attack Canada geese because of their large sizes. Secondly, hunting was also not allowed anymore in cities and suburbs so the geese could live for a long time and grow many healthy goslings. People also love feeding them and geese are not scared of humans anymore as they used to. (Herbert) As their populations increases, problems start to occur. They are contaminating our water supply with their filthy slimy green droppings. One goose poops 5-9 times a day, and imagine 80,000 geese contaminating the water supply, it could get pretty gross. Other problem with increased population is that geese love short grass near water. If the grass runs out, they go tearing up other people’s lawns. Problems with the geese seem to get worse each year. The geese no longer fly in a V- formation, which is a sentimental symbol of the passing season. They now live as if they have adapted to life in our cities. They even forget how to migrate in winter. They have enjoyed their lives in the environment over the years, that they want to continue having a peaceful life, but would people allow it? The answer is probably not. That’s what a lot of angry people are saying now. Farmers are mad at the geese for destroying their crops. Some countries have lost over 300,000 dollars in crops because of the Canada Geese. They eat all sorts of crops and in fact, they could wipe out a field in no time. (Herbert) People with nice lawns and yards definitely want the geese to move away. They pull grass out of the lawn leaving hideous holes on the ground, which do not please the homeowners. Angry drivers are not happy with geese causing traffic jams in the highways. When drivers honk the geese, they just ignore the drivers and even honk them back. Annoyed walkers are not thrilled to have droppings stuck to their footwear whenever they take a walk. A large number of citizens are not pleased with the geese. There are a lot of them around the cities and suburbs. People can’t even have picnics without stepping on any geese droppings just like the joggers. School’s sport teams sometimes have to cancel games since the field is too messy. People who love going to beaches can’t go to them since the beaches are closed because of the droppings of the geese. (Herbert) In fact, if humans do not cut the numbers of geese, our water will one day be too sickening for humans to drink. Geese are now posing a health threat because they can carry germs like salmonella and giardia. (Springston) However, they don’t pose as much threat as other wildlife animals. According to the rate for Canada geese, they are not measurable which means they aren’t really dangerous. Nevertheless, they do make water dirty, which will still be a huge problem to humans. Lots of solutions are thought of to get rid of the geese without hurting them in any way. People try to make loud noises, spray the grass with some chemicals, and even make plastic owls to scare them. On the market, there are lots of deterrents to work against the geese. They make plastic alligators, chemicals, metallic, iridescent streamers and try to use swans. However, nothing lasted for long. Some thought of â€Å"shipping the geese off to a distant, remote the new home, clean up the dropping on the lawn and problem would be solved† (Bond). They even try to ship them elsewhere but it doesn’t work at all. So now a broad, long-term strategy is being developed. However, there will have to be many more polluted lawns before geese and humans settle into peaceful co-existence. (Bond) Federal wildlife agencies, the companies who reintroduce Canada geese back to wildlife, want to trim the population which is 3.5 million and is still increasing by 1.16 million geese in the coming years. They will start at places where they allow permit lethal means, which means trapping, nest destruction and roundups. (Herbert) Some other companies want to increase hunting geese, which may be a solution but will need lots of money to do so. However, this creates lots of other problems because there are limits to killing geese. The geese are protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty of 1916, which limits hunting seasons and the number of geese an individual hunter may kill. (Herbert) Companies who are trying to prevent harming the geese are now trying to train dogs to chase them away. â€Å"In fact they are the hottest thing in goose management,† says an urban biologist John George. Using dogs to chase the geese away will be a good temporary solution. However it won’t work for long because geese are smart birds. They will eventually find a solution to not get scared just like humans try to find a solution to eliminate them. (Miller) So after all, reintroducing geese back into the society may be a regret to a lot of people. Yet it is also the humans’ fault for not watching them closely and carefully enough. Their droppings are infecting the environment, and are destroying crops, and causing disturbances in the neighborhood. They are part of a human problem that has gone wrong but one day, a solution will overcome the geese problem, making both the geese and humans satisfied. How to cite The once called beautiful Canadian Geese is now nicknamed the monster in Canada, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Dell2 Essay Example For Students

Dell2 Essay The article that I choose was Can Michael Dell Escape The Box? As one of the most brilliant innovator of our time Michael Dell is going through what many people believe is a tough time. But Michael has the absolute opposite thought about his business. The stock has been decline at very high-speeds in the last year. So where does Dell go next? That is the question that everyone in the technology world is wondering these days. Dell is a continuous growth model. It is like a living organism. It is contestably adoption and changing and finding ways to master its environment, as opposed to just respond to it. At age 35 Michael Dell is worth about $15 billion. After growing 59% in 1998,48% in 1999 and 39% in the year 2000, Dell told Wall Street to look for 30% in the year 2001. Last quarter the number came in at a disappoint 25%. Dell has decided to go to the next level with selling servers. In sales of Wintel servers, where Dell is No. 2, behind Compaq, it defied skeptics who said it coul d never sell something so complicated over the telephone or Internet. Now Dell is trying to move even further up to the computing food chains by low cost storage systems and services sell along with its hardware. Although Dells revenues are rising smartly its rate of growth has been decline and Wall Street has pounded the stock. The hiring at the Dell Corp. is a very intense process. The hiring is design to weed out anyone who would slow Dell down. People with the big egos who get off on big budgets and big staffs need not to apply at Dell. Newcomers are told they must be comfortable with a high level of ambiguity. Even old timers are hard pressed to draw an organization chart. Some people are in charge of segments and some are in charge of products. Dells campus at his corporation is not one that you would look at and be in awe of. Michael Dell has turned the companys direct, low cost, cut out the bells and whistles. Be the fastest business model into a mission and rallying cry. Th is year he tells the crowd that Dells goal is to be No. 1 in servers and storage, and to be t he premier Internet partner for customers around the world. Let me tell you why were so focused on the Internet infrastructure. Every time someone types www they go to a server. Sales have up shot along with the rank and market share. Dell is one of the most popular computers out on the market right now. Even though its only way of selling is through direct marketing it is still a hot item. Dells revenues doubled over the past two years. And it toppled big competitors like Compaq and IBM to lead the U.S. market in sales of desktops and portables. But those markets are begging to slow, and Dell relies on them for more then 80% of their profits. As from a business perspective we believe that all customers should be treated equal. But with Dell they go with a different approach they believe that all customers at Dell are not created equal. Dell admits that their main focus is the big time cust omers. An example is a large corporation that buys many servers from Dell might get a discount on PCs and portable computers. Nothing last forever. Dells biggest challenge will be to have the discipline to know when and how to change the model that has worked so well for it. If Michael Dell does no, it will be just a matter of time before another company does a Dell on Dell. Bibliography: .u6d31b0043fb40f6fdf1a6cfe841a8520 , .u6d31b0043fb40f6fdf1a6cfe841a8520 .postImageUrl , .u6d31b0043fb40f6fdf1a6cfe841a8520 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u6d31b0043fb40f6fdf1a6cfe841a8520 , .u6d31b0043fb40f6fdf1a6cfe841a8520:hover , .u6d31b0043fb40f6fdf1a6cfe841a8520:visited , .u6d31b0043fb40f6fdf1a6cfe841a8520:active { border:0!important; } .u6d31b0043fb40f6fdf1a6cfe841a8520 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u6d31b0043fb40f6fdf1a6cfe841a8520 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u6d31b0043fb40f6fdf1a6cfe841a8520:active , .u6d31b0043fb40f6fdf1a6cfe841a8520:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u6d31b0043fb40f6fdf1a6cfe841a8520 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u6d31b0043fb40f6fdf1a6cfe841a8520 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u6d31b0043fb40f6fdf1a6cfe841a8520 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u6d31b0043fb40f6fdf1a6cfe841a8520 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u6d31b0043fb40f6fdf1a6cfe841a8520:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u6d31b0043fb40f6fdf1a6cfe841a8520 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u6d31b0043fb40f6fdf1a6cfe841a8520 .u6d31b0043fb40f6fdf1a6cfe841a8520-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u6d31b0043fb40f6fdf1a6cfe841a8520:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Form and structure Essay

Tuesday, March 24, 2020

1.) Three Genetic Disorders Are Downs Syndrome, Turners Syndrome, And

1.) Three genetic disorders are Down's syndrome, Turner's syndrome, and Red-green color blindness. They are all caused by undesirable genes inherited by normal genetic mechanisms. These mutations are usually recessive because dominant ones usually die. Turner's Syndrome is caused by faulty cell division known as non disjunction. This occurs when chromosomes fail to separate. IN this disorder, the affected have one "x" chromosome. The effect are an underdeveloped female, mental retardedness, and sterility. Down syndrome is a condition caused by an oddosome that occurs on the pair #21. It results in severe abnormality physical and mental defects. For example, shorter bubble-shape eyes, short fingers, short necks. There are degrees of down syndrome depending on the amount of chromosomes (extra). It is also inherited, and is a common deformity. Red-green colorblindness is a deformity where red cannot be distinguished from green. This is sex linked. 2.) Water is the cradle of life. Water has many properties that make it the most important simple atomic structure. Water acts like a magnet, both the oxygen and the hydrogen atoms attract the electrons in the electrons they share in the covalent bonds of the water molecule. Water is a polar molecule, this is because water is cohesive, it forms a lattice of hydrogen bonds with itself that is a liquid and not a gas, at moderate temperatures. The cohesion of water is also responsible for its surface tension. Another property of water is its high specific strong go heat. Hydrogen bonds absorb heat when they break, and release heat when they form, minimizing temperature charges. Water is a powerful solvent, water molecules gather closely around any molecule that exhibits an electrical charge, Polar water molecules are attracted to ions and polar compounds, making them soluble. Water also organizes non polar molecules, when non polar molecules, which don't form hydrogen bonds, are placed in water, the water molecules act in such a way as to exclude them. Water also has the property to ionize. The ions of water spontaneously formate, when this happens one of the proteins dissociates from the molecule. Another property of water is that ice has a lower density than liquid. This happens because the water molecules in an ice crystal are spaced relatively far apart because of hydrogen bonding. Thsi properties of water help make it the cradle of life that plants and animals depend on for living. 5.) The plasma membrane (or cell membrane) bounds the cell. Because of the importance of the plasma membrane as the seperator of internal metabolic events from external environment and because it controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell.. The plasma membrane consists of a double phospholipid membrane with the non polar hydrophobic tails pointing toward the inside of the membrane and the polar hydrophilic heads forming the two outer faces. Protein and cholesterol molecules are scattered throughout the flexible phospholipid membrane. The phosopholipid membrane is hydrophobic barrier to the movement of most molecule small molecules, such as h20, C2o and O2, freely pass across the membrane. Transport proteins spend ATP to transfer materials across the membrane. When energy is used for this purpose, the materials are said to be actively transported, and the process is called active transport. There are two ways in which substance move. The first, bulk flow, is the overall movement of a group of substances. This motion is different from bulk flow because it is the motion of molecules (or atom or ions) independent from the motion of other molecules. If a concentration gradient exists, that is if the concentration of certain molecules (or atoms or ions) is different from one region to another, then the molecules which are constantly moving will eventually become evenly distributed. Diffusion occurs as a result of the random motion of the molecules. Cannel proteins ( at syntheses) in the cristae allow the protons in the outer compartment to flow back into the matrix. The protons moving through the channel generate the energy for other for these channel proteins to produce ATP. It is how turbines in a dam generate electricity when water flows through them.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Character Study of Helmer in Ibsens Famous Play

Character Study of Helmer in Ibsen's Famous Play One of the two main characters in the play, Torvald is the husband whose dolls house is torn apart at the end of the show. His character is far from ideal- but upon seeing a production of Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House, audiences are left with an important question: Should we feel sorry for Torvald Helmer? At the plays end  his wife, Nora Helmer, abandons him, leaving behind her three young children. She claims that she doesnt love him. She can no longer be his wife. He begs her to stay, yet Nora denies him, walking off in the middle of the winter night, slamming the door behind her. When the curtain closes upon a pathetic, defeated husband, some viewers find that Torvald has received his comeuppance. Torvalds demeaning personality and his hypocritical actions justify Nora’s harsh decision to leave. Examining Torvald’s Character Flaws Torvald Helmer possesses many obvious character  flaws. For one, he constantly talks down to his wife. Here is a list of his pet names for Nora: â€Å"My little skylark†Ã¢â‚¬Å"My little squirrel†Ã¢â‚¬Å"My little singing bird†Ã¢â‚¬Å"My pretty little pet†Ã¢â‚¬Å"My little sweet-tooth†Ã¢â‚¬Å"My poor little Nora† With every term of endearment, the word â€Å"little† is always included. Torvald views himself as the emotional and intellectual superior of the household. To him, Nora is a â€Å"child-wife,† someone to watch over, to instruct, nurture and censure. He never considers her an equal partner in the relationship. Of course, their marriage is one typical of 1800s Europe, and Ibsen uses his play to challenge this status quo. Perhaps Torvald’s most dislikeable quality is his blatant hypocrisy. Many times throughout the play, Torvald criticizes the morality of other characters. He trashes the reputation of Krogstad, one of his lesser employees (and ironically the loan shark that Nora is indebted to). He speculates that Krogstad’s corruption probably started in the home. Torvald believes that if the mother of a household is dishonest, then surely the children will become morally infected. Torvald also complains about Nora’s late father. When Torvald learns that Nora has committed forgery, he blames her crime on her father’s weak morals. Yet, for all his self-righteousness, Torvald is a hypocrite. In the beginning of Act Three, after dancing and having a merry time at a holiday party, Torvald tells Nora how much he cares for her. He claims to be absolutely devoted her. He even wishes that some calamity would befall them so that he could demonstrate his steadfast, heroic nature. Of course, a moment later, that wished-for conflict arises. Torvald finds the letter revealing how Nora has brought scandal and blackmail into his household. Nora is in trouble, but Torvald, the supposedly shining white knight, fails to come to her rescue. Instead, here is what he yells at her: â€Å"Now you have ruined my entire happiness!†Ã¢â‚¬Å"And it’s all the fault of a featherbrained woman!†Ã¢â‚¬Å"You will not be allowed to bring up the children, I can’t trust you with them.† So much for being Nora’s dependable knight in shining armor! Examining Noras Complicity To Torvald’s credit, Nora is a willing participant in their dysfunctional relationship. She understands that her husband sees her as an innocent, child-like persona, and she struggles to maintain the faà §ade. Nora uses the pet names whenever she tries to persuade her husband: â€Å"If a little squirrel were to ask every so nicely?† Nora also carefully hides her activities from her husband. She puts away her sewing needles and unfinished dress because she knows that her husband does not wish to see a woman toiling away. He wishes to see only the final, beautiful product. In addition, Nora keeps secrets from her husband. She goes behind his back to obtain her ill-gotten loan. Torvald is too stubborn to ever borrow money, even at the cost of his own life. Essentially, Nora saves Torvald by borrowing the money so that they can travel to Italy until her husband’s health improves. Throughout the play, Torvald is oblivious to his wife’s craftiness and her compassion. When he discovers the truth, in the end, he is outraged when he should be humbled. Should We Pity Torvald? Despite his many flaws, some readers and audience members still feel tremendous sympathy for Torvald. In fact, when the play was first performed in Germany and America, the ending was changed. It was believed by some producers that theater-goers would not want to see a mother walk out on her husband and children. So, in several revised versions, â€Å"A Doll’s House† ends with Nora reluctantly deciding to stay. However, in the original, classic version, Ibsen does not spare poor Torvald from humiliation. When Nora calmly says, â€Å"We two have a lot to talk about,† Torvald learns that Nora will no longer be his doll or â€Å"child-wife.† He is astounded by her choice. He asks for a chance to reconcile their differences; he even suggests that they live as â€Å"brother and sister.† Nora refuses. She feels as though Torvald is now a stranger. Desperate, he asks if there is the smallest hope that they might be husband and wife once again. She responds: Nora: Both you and I would have to change to the point where†¦ Oh, Torvald, I don’t believe in miracles any more.Torvald: But I will believe. Name it! Change to the point where†¦?Nora: Where we could make a real marriage of our lives together. Goodbye! Then she promptly leaves. Grief-stricken, Torvald hides his face in his hands. In the next moment, he lifts his head up, somewhat hopeful. â€Å"The miracle of miracles?† he asks himself. His longing to redeem their marriage seems sincere. So perhaps, despite his hypocrisy, self-righteousness, and his demeaning attitude, the audience may feel sympathy for Torvald as the door slams shut on his tear-stained hopes.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

JS MILL ON LIBERTY ASSIGNMENT Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

JS MILL ON LIBERTY ASSIGNMENT - Essay Example That the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others. His own good, either physical or moral, is not sufficient warrant. He cannot rightfully be compelled to do or forbear because it will be better for him to do so, because it will make him happier, because, in the opinions of others, to do so would be wise, or even right.† (Mill, Pg. 18) Suicide is a personal decision that does not physically harm other individuals. Mill’s Harm Principle clearly applies to self-defense and strives to protect the individual liberty of each of us. As long as our decisions do not affect another’s liberty or life then why must we be harnessed by another’s morality? That is the question that an anonymous 80 year old from Ohio is posing as well. This is the question to be addressed in the following paper. The letter written in June of 2003 outlined the thoughts of an 80 year old individual. Through the letter one can easily grasp that they have lived a full life, which their life is complete and they simply wish to spare their children whom they love greatly the pain and suffering of a long drawn out fight against various cancers. The author of this letter says, â€Å"What I don’t understand is why people think it is wrong for someone like me to just call it a day, throw in the towel.† (Anonymous. Pg.1) the principle moral issue with this is the individual’s right to life, and the individual’s right to their own life. Mill’s clarifies his principle as affecting adults in the â€Å"maturity of their faculties† (Mill, Pg. 19) by his own declaration one’s personal â€Å"good, either physical or moral, is not sufficient warrant† (Mill, Pg. 18) to prevent another from taking their own life into their own hands. The argument most often heard is that suicide affects the family, and yet we see that the true d etriment here per the anonymous authors letter is the continuance which would cost additional monies and anguish from watching as one you love slowly and painfully drifts away. Mill’s point is that society or state has not the right to impose moral standards on an individual if that individual is not harming another physically. The argument can be made that by making it illegal to take decide when one should die, they are in fact presenting ownership of the individual. The very liberty that is proclaimed of body and soul is than repressed at the point of death if one dies as a result of one’s own hand. Mill’s presents the argument that each individual is the proper guardian of their own health; he states that this includes body, mental and spiritual. â€Å"Mankind is great gainers by suffering each other to live as seems good to them, than by compelling each to live as seems good to the rest.† (Mill, Pg. 24) The anonymous older gentleman outlines this by directly asking why it is someone else’s prerogative as to when he should end his own life. An individual’s liberty must include the freedom to decide when they die if they so choose. Unfortunately, the argument has been made that society must care for all lives within its grasp, and even more unfortunately, this is not the social argument as much as the state based society argument. They are able to make the case that the physical health and wellbeing is the prerogative of society and the state and cannot be left in the hands of the individual.

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Discussion Questions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 10

Discussion Questions - Essay Example ncludes, but is not limited to, knowledge of the activities of competitors such as their sales and marketing strategies, price points, research and development, patents, mergers and acquisitions, hirings and firings, and so on. Besides this knowledge of what other competing companies are doing, it also includes knowing for example, relevant regulatory legislation such as deregulation and pollution standards, and awareness of new markets, emerging technologies, new competitors and public opinion etc. Knowledge of all the above-mentioned factors that impinge on the competitive environment contributes to a more complete understanding of multinational and global market research by providing the company already present or wishing to engage in this environment a profound insight into everything that can directly affect it. For example, legislation on safety standards would make it necessary for the company to conform to them; taking advantage of new technologies could help to improve the manufacture and assembly processes, communication systems, marketing and distribution networks etc. And, scarcity in the availability of raw materials could mean that the company would have to make alternative arrangements or seek new supply channels. Marketing fundamentals dictate that market knowledge should be used to increase sales but existing or returning customers help to perpetuate sales. So, in a highly competitive and especially shrinking market, customer satisfaction becomes all the more important. It is usually easier to try and keep current customers by keeping them satisfied that it is to seek out potential new customers. â€Å"Competitors that are prospering in the new global economy recognize that measuring customer satisfaction is key.† (Cacioppo, 2000) This way they can not only hold on to existing customers but also learn better to attract new ones. In the mobile phone industry for example, customers are normally subscribed to one cellular network. However, it is a

Sunday, January 26, 2020

The Architecture Of The Mosque

The Architecture Of The Mosque Philosophically, the whole Earth is a mosque and by this principle namaz will be complete wherever performed. Initially there was no specific building to spread the message of Islam. The Muslim Arabs, being nomads, had a minimum approach and preclude the use of permanent buildings and everything they possessed had to be demountable and portable. Thus there was no specific edifice as such. Only a square area marked out by a line drawn in the sand was sufficient for communal prayer. The only basic necessity was that one side of the square had to face Mecca to indicate the direction of the prayer. Knowing the importance of the mosque to the religion of Islam today it is quite surprising to hear the ironic story behind its evolution. From the start, monotheistic religions like Islam were opposed to the idea of building specially designed to house the faithful for prayer. The mosques (literally meaning place of prostration), are the Centre of religious life throughout the Muslim World and develops as one of the major forms of religious architecture. In one of its most evolved forms, it has one or more minarets, arches, domes and is often decorated with elaborate tracery and Arabic calligraphy from the Koran. The evolved mosque forms are known to be some of the finest structures in Islamic architecture. The mosque is the only building type, which has spread throughout the entire Muslim world, from the beginning of the religion in 610 A.D. A mosque is a building, where Muslims congregate to pray. Mosques can be small, at a neighborhood scale or large, at the town/ city level. Such as a neighborhood mosque or they can be large and used by Muslims of a large town, or city. The large mosque is called a Jami Mosque. Jami means Juma or Friday. All Muslims are required to pray together every Friday at midday and the large mosques were constructed for this purpose. Mosque is used for worship usually for which there is a hall and open court, but could also have other functions like that of a Madarsa, a school for education and a community center. It consists of many architectural elements like, minaret, arch, dome, color, calligraphy and other decorative forms ornamenting the surfaces. Like all other liturgical edifice, the mosque has a standardized assembly of components, which vary in accordance with the size of the prayer (i.e. whether its for prayer for an individual or congregation-small/ large). There is a demarcated space, partly roofed and partly open to sky, varying in size and form, from region to region depending on the harshness of the climate. The roofed part is the prayer hall, rectangular or square in plan, supported by a trabeated structure or arcuated structure. The Prayer hall must have one wall facing Mecca (Qibla wall) with a niche or series of niches (Mihrab), which is the central and most decorated part of every mosque. The pulpit (Minbar) consisting of steps of varying height is stationed to the right of the mihrab and the imam during Friday prayer delivers the oration (Khutba) from it. The minbar is however absent in smaller mosques. A wooden platform (dikha) of single storey height is positioned in line with the Mihrab. From there the respondents (qadi) of the mosque repeat the ritual postures of the imam and give their response. Next to the Dikha, the lectern (kursi) is placed on which the Quran rests. Another most necessary feature of many mosques is the water pool or fountain intended for the prescribed ritual of ablutions (wazu) before the prayer. The five times daily call for prayer (azan) is heard from the minaret, a tower like structure, originally serving as more of a local landmark. A portal is created as a general characteristic of the architecture of the Islamic world as the concealment of the interiors of a building from outside view. Thus, most mosques are surrounded by high walls. With reference to architectural elaboration, the art of writing is taken to higher level of visual expression in mosque architecture. Certain calligraphic scripts are used in the Qibla wall and direct focus, helping substantiate the religious importance of the mosque. The writing often quotes from the Quran or is information about the builder of the mosque. Another mode is geometric patterns and vegetal forms used in screens (jali) and as surface ornamentation. Geometric patterns result from taking a simple form and replicating/ extending it in various directions to arrive at the final. The patterns in their dizzying and unending configurations connote unity in God. In the present time, modern mosques designs have been modified as per newer technologies and ease of building construction. The size of mosque has been decreasing due to lack of space in cities. The main components of the mosque have been reduced and elements have lost their original meaning and serve as symbols. The geometric patterns rich with meaning are devalued to mere decoration. The architecture of mosque has been changing to modern, to contemporary but to what end? 1.2 Research Question: How did local/ regional/ vernacular architecture affect mosque architecture in the past and how/ why does the contemporary mosque differ from the traditional mosque? 1.3 NEED IDENTIFICATION In modern society the mosque served as the single most important visible representation of identity and value. More mosques are being built today than any other liturgical edifice of any other religion. However for a structure representing one religion and a specific body of people, it is odd that it should be so varied in style and divergent in beauty. The reason for this lies in the mosque located in different parts of the world representing different perspectives of different clients. Each mosque is differing in traditions, climate, building materials, local condition of nature and diverse aesthetic and social requirements. As a student of architecture and representing a Muslim region from India, I share a keen interest in Islamic Architecture. And since the mosque lies at the very heart of Islamic architecture, there is a feeling of even a greater need to study this specific structure. Due to time and space constraints, there are certain limitations; hence, I will focus on contemporary Mosques Delhi regions as primary case studies. The architecture of the modern mosque is much at variant when compared with the mosque of the past due to globalization, advanced technology, tendency to go towards the sky due to lack of ground space, the use of architectural elements as symbols and reduction of patterns as surface decorations. 1.4 OBJECTIVES To trace the development and follow along the different established types of mosques, starting from Early Islamic period in the 7th century times. To identify the basic principles behind the specific vocabulary of the mosque. To study symbolic and functional attributes of the mosque and its evolution. To study various differences in space configuration, built expression, material, elements /components and technology between modern and traditional mosque. 1.5 SCOPE This dissertation is not intended as a historical survey of Islamic mosque architecture and therefore does not include all the fine monuments, which exist. The origin and development of the mosque would be understood only to get the bearings right to analyze contemporary examples. The general history of the advent of Islam in Arab, India and the mosque forms that evolve henceforth would be discussed briefly to build a context. From vernacular mosque form, the shift is to, what is built now- what is the vernacular of today? And hence what happens to the mosque and is the use of symbols necessary to be able to identify the building as a mosque? 1.6 LIMITATIONS It is not possible to study all the mosque architecture of all Islamic regions under the given time frame. Therefore, the study is limited to mosques in India focusing on the Northern region with a brief study of the contemporary mosque outside India. As result of time and space constraints, mosques of the entire Indian sub-continent will not be discussed in detail but only to form the overall context, with brief analysis of mosques of the South, East, West, and North. Detail account of the history of the one region is beyond the scope of this dissertation, thus only relevant pieces of their history will be mentioned. The focus will be on selected mosques, which reflect the most prototypical form of particular periods of the respective region. Thus, only a few mosques will be discussed which act as indicators of that particular architectural form. 1.7 METHODOLOGY The first step is to analyze the topic and define what direction this dissertation takes, and what the author wants to come up with at the end of it, the end result may be documentation, a detailed analysis, or a set of solutions. The regions selected for the study are not easily accessible and this dissertation will rely mainly on literature survey from secondary sources rather that from primary data for major sections of the work. Primary data would be collected through site visits limited to mosques in Delhi and discussion with experts. Secondary sources include literature survey. Literature Survey: This involves data collection, reading and understanding literature from various sources like SPA (New Delhi) libraries, Jamia Milla Islamia Architecture library and the internet. Analysis of nature of open spaces, the role of open spaces in the mosque and role of closed spaces is understood. After the collation process, the next stage would be, systematic representation of data. Interaction With Experts This involves opinion of various architects, discussion about what is happening in India and exposure to other related issues, along with discussion on primary case studies. Identifying issues, discussion on various issues and analyzing their opinion would be the major tasks. Primary Data collection Methodology for the study of Delhi mosque architecture: A brief account of the mosque architecture in Delhi is essential to contextualize the primary studies, as these were the immediate references for what is happening now. The first mosque developed in 11th century in Delhi by the Slave dynasty. Each changing phase will be studied by taking the significant mosque of that period. Though a personal visit would be made to these sites, information will be obtained through literature survey also. The mosques of contemporary times would be the primary study, with a complete analysis of the determinants of form. The process for case studies: Selection of case studies of new mosque buildings. Collection of information- basic plan and maps showing site surrounding areas, site boundaries, built mass and visual readings of mosque as landmark, materiality and building elements. Analysis of the chosen case studies. IV. Survey methodology for case studies Few case studies of contemporary mosques of Delhi are considered- one is under construction and the other mosques have been in use for considerable amount of time. This dissertation includes survey through discussion with the people who are users of the mosque. The drawing and other important data would be collected from the architects office. All photographs are taken at the site. After doing all case studies conclusion are drawn and recommendations are made for design strategies of the future mosque architecture. With the help of three examples of mosques, which are built in different time periods, I want to illustrate that architecture of mosques is in a process of complete transformation because global culture and technology is constantly affecting it, along with highlighting what helps maintain its identity. V. Analysis of case studies The case study is analyzed as per following: Built /open spatial spatial configuration (arising from basic needs of religion itself) Purpose and use of space. Visual expression of mosque- includes massing, elements, surface elaboration and materiality. Chapter 2 EARLY ISLAM 2.1. HISTORY OF ISLAM AS A RELIGION Islam began in Arabia, where the revelation was first received by the Prophet, but spread rapidly among the Persians and Black Africans, and soon thereafter among Turks, Chinese, Indians, and many other ethnic groups. Muhammad was born in the city of Mecca in 570 CE. At the time, people were busy with their business, markets were crowded with nomads and residents alike, buying and selling goods. His parents died when he was 6 years old. He cared for by his grandfather, and uncle, Abu Talib and eventually became head of the Hashim clan. Young Muhammad was a camel driver and roamed the peninsula with his uncle, to know about various cultures and religions including Christianity and Judaism. As idol worship had come to dominate Mecca, this contact turned out to be significant for later times. The Kabah itself housed many idols, including those representing the three main goddesses. He continued travelling in Arabia, encountering different faiths and customs, but riches did not satisfy Muhammad and he developed enemies in Mecca. Therefore, he decided to leave Mecca. And he started a journey. This journey was known as the Hijri. Muhammad arrived in Medina as the new leader, bearing tremendous responsibilities. While receiving communication from God and teaching his devotees, he had to protect Islam from opposition and find a peaceful solution to the local feuds. He was able to unite the feuding clans through his teachings the Jewish and Muslims prayed together. First time the prayer was read in the direction of Jerusalem, and after some years the prayer was read towards Mecca instead of Medina, as Muhammad instructed. For this reason some followers turned against Muhammad, and they created a separate group. Violence erupted, ending in the expulsion of some Jewish tribes from Medina. He established a new community with his followers and began raiding caravans bound for Mecca. These kinds of raids were not uncommon at the time, and they provided sustenance for the Muslims. This angered the Meccans, and a series of battles followed. Despite a few setbacks, the Muslims gained power and recognition. After destroying or converting his tribal enemies, Muhammad controlled the entire Arabian Peninsula. Finally, in 629 CE, Mecca submitted to the Muslims. Muhammad entered the city and headed directly to the Kabah. After circling it seven times, he smashed the stone idols. He spoke of the oneness of God, or Allah, and proclaimed himself a prophet. The spread of Islam occurred in waves. In less than a century after the establishment of the first Islamic society in Medina by the Prophet, Arab armies conquered a land stretching from the Indus River to France and brought with them Islam, which, contrary to popular Western conceptions, was not, however, forced on the people by the sword. Periods of Islamic history Mosques were built outside the Arabian Peninsula as Muslims settled in other parts of the world. Egypt became occupied by Muslim Arabs as early as 640 AD. Islamic architectural history can be roughly divided in to three main periods, during which one or more traditions were dominant: the Early Islamic (650-1050), which may be called the age of Arab Dominance; the middle Islamic (1050-1450), the age of Iranian Dominance; and the later Islamic (1450-1850), the age of Turkish and Indian Dominance. 2.2 Origin and evolution of mosque Origin It is a strange face of history that the Muslim tradition of architecture, productive of some of the worlds outstanding monuments, was first patronized by a people, the Arabs, who had none but the crudest notions of building. For them the finest architecture was a tent. In the starting of Islam, the Kaaba had only four walls in 608. In the age of the orthodox Caliphs (632-661), the eras brought nothing architectural to the conquered countries beyond what would serve their orthodoxy than by their taste. The building of their time ware utilitarian, without architectural pretense, and consisted of mosques (Basra, 638-639; kufa, 638-639; and fustat, 642) and government buildings. The first mosque was built in Mecca. This area was surrounded by pre Islamic buildings. The Kaaba mosque is the holiest structure of Islam. The earliest mosque is Prophet Mohammad house in Medina which was built in 622CE. This qibla wall was facing toward the direction of Jerusalem. Mohammad house is situated left side of the qibla wall. There were three entrances into the courtyard. The courtyard area was roofed, and the prayer was performed here. After one or one and half years, the qibla wall direction was changed, and was made to face in the direction of Mecca, as it is today. The Medina mosque had social, political and judicial functions, in addition to being the house of the Mohammad family. The religious functions were merged with other functions. Rules of the performing prayer were not decided that time. And in the Koran, the rules had not been given till now. In addition to early mosques of Medina and Mecca, now the cities have contemporary mosques, which are more complex as per the demands and needs of the people and their religion. After the death of Muhammad, mosques became important symbols of Islam. The Muslim conquerors established mosques everywhere. They built the mosque first and later built the military camp around the mosque. The Muslim conquered Medina or Mecca city and constructed mosque in the place. This became the center of the region of Muslim conquered people. Muhammads house was divided into hall and courtyard, which was surrounded by the columned verandah. This was an ideal mosque where the faithful conjunct for prayer, but also one for social assembly and political deliberation. A building without architectural pretensions, it was a hypo style hall and was deep, apparently having three aisles, divided by three rows of nine columns each. The most significant aspect this house offers to Islamic architecture of later was that it provided the orientation (Qibla) of praying area towards the sacred city of Mecca. Evolution The Masjid as a type of architecture intended for congregational prayer did not exist at Mecca before the hijra. In Medina, the stronghold of Islam, however, the two concepts of Musalla and Masjid came to receive distinct interpretations. The controversy among the traditionalists over the performance of prayer in either the Musalla or the Masjid was surrounded around the fact that they were structurally different. Kaaba mosque was the first newly built mosque of Islam and Abraham assisted by his son Ismail, when he found the order of Allah, built the existing foundation. They performed prayers together with their followers at this site. The site of Kaaba was also believed to be place of angles of Adam, erected by Allah and used for worship. The orthodox Caliph leaders were succeeded by the caliph dynasty of the Umayyads (661-750), who were held by many Muslims to be upstarts. After this the philistine people started the taunt type structure. The kaaba was rebuilt in 684 AD and was decorated with mosaic marble, which was collected from Yemen churches. Iranian architectural elements were also used in the building. The location of the mosque was decided by Prophet Muhammad when he did the first time Friday prayer there. He lived beside the masjid in Medina, which was use as doubled purpose as both a religious and political center for the early Muslim community. The Umayyad Mosque is an example of the form of mosque derived from the Prophets house, and was built in (705-715) in Damascus. In the 10th century, different types of mosque started to develop because of influences of local traditional material and techniques of building. Distinctively different types of mosque developed in the different countries. Mosques are usually ornamented with stone, marble, wood carving, patterned brick, mosaic, glass, murals. Contemporary mosques are built using new technologies of construction, and are adopted in most parts of the world, but it is remains traditional in layout. When Islam spreads out of the deserts of Saudi Arabia and into the cities like Damascus and Cairo, the rapidly expanding Muslims population required house for worship to meet their spiritual and social requirements. The mosques that followed are innovative and magnificent examples of architecture, original in their own way with reminensces of their culture. 2.3 Concept of mosque The Space: The mosque comprises of a demarcated space, partly roofed and partly open to sky. This proportion of covered and open space varies from region to region depending on the harshness of the climate. The open space is a court used for performing prayers for large gatherings on occasions. Local community mosque Chapter 3 Local culture and Variation in the Mosque 3.1 Vernacular variation across the World The Islamic world extents its boundary from Spain and West Africa eastwards to as far as China, in south- East Asia. It is therefore not surprising to hear that Muslims comprise around one fifth of the world population and constitute a majority of more than forty nations of the Middle East Asia and Africa. Islam holds a strong position in the world. The religion must not only be powerful by faith and logic but also have charm and beauty to attract such an immense audience to brace the religion and look upon it with awe. There is no other more suitable edifice to depict this elegance and act as symbol of the religion as well as the mosque. In the early day, Islam borrowed features from existing religious and cultural buildings. They gave them harmony with the existing and yet originality and proved beyond doubt that Islamic leaders not only possess the power of assimilation, but that of organization and adaptability as well. These borrowed styles were recognizable at first but the new styles that evolved started forming their own architectural identity and style. In the various new lands, the mosques were built by exploring local traditions and materials available. Each region had with its own craftsmen, their own building methods. Combined with extreme differences in climate, this gave rise to highly disparate styles and each region introduced to the world a diverse style of architecture of their own. Thus it is seen that despite an essential feeling of cultural unity which pervades the entire Islamic world, there exists an investable diversity in the styles of architecture of each region. Generally, the Islamic world had divide in to the eastern and the western regions where one gets influenced by the other. The eastern part of the Muslim world looks to the Persian Language and culture for inspiration. Iran was one of regions which is covered vast area including Central Asia and Afghanistan and spread into the Indian. Initially Iran had accepted Western architectural forms and stemming from Arab style. However with the emergence of local dynasties awareness was created. These divergent styles may be categorized in to five basic types of mosque. These are 1.the hypostyle hall with a flat roof and possibly one or more small domes (as seen in Arabian and African Examples) 2. Building with a very large central space often covered by massive domes provided with lateral support by the weight of hall domes (such as those in the Ottoman style) or having pyramidal pitched roof (as in Indonesia) 3. The layout with an Iwan (vaulted hall) placed each side of a bi-axially divided central rectangular courtyard (as developed in Iran and Central Asia) 4. The triple domed mosque with courtyard (typical of Mughal architecture in India). 5. And finally the walled Complex with a number of pavilions set in the enclosed landscaped spaces (as found in China). Case study of vernacular mosque 1. Great mosque of Djenne in Mali, Africa. Economical Approach (Regional Resources) -1907 The Djenne mosque of Africa is the largest mud brick mosque of the world. This is the famous mosque of Africa and boasts of impressive mud structures. Mud construction is a friendly environment material. Mud is appropriate according to the climate and is less expensive to build with, as it is locally available. Easy construction to create mud mortar and plaster. Palm wood use for the scaffolding and roofs. The walls are thick in size and tapered and provide protection from heat. During the day, the wall absorbed the heat of the sun that is released throughout the night time; this helps to maintaining cool environment during the day time. It also has roofs vents with ceramic cover, which is removed at night to ventilate the interior parts and spaces. 2. Traditional Kampung Hulu Mosque, Malaysia (1728AD) The traditional mosque design of south- East Asia has inspired the simple pyramidal layered roof, which becomes an important element of design. It relies on the roof over hangs with open serambi and the recessed walls to respond to local climate high rain fall Æ’Â   excellent rain water discharge. Wall openings are crucial in the mosque design. The wall openings are at the ground floor and segmented roofs wall level of four-and-a-half storey building. These openings induce natural cross ventilation and stack effect. The emphasis is on cross air ventilation. Recessed wall help tackle the problem of direct exposure from tropical sunlight, luminosity, solar radiation and this concept only works well to block high angle sunlight but not low angle sunlight. VERNACULAR TYPOLOGY IN INDIA Islam arrived in India via the Malabar Coast in 600 AD. It was just about the same time that it was spreading into Arabia. This is not surprising, considering the proximity of the two coastline trade links from pre-Islamic times. Arab merchants traded Indian spice with other parts of the known world. A number of them set up households in the Malabar as well, and it is through them that Islam was introduced into the Indian subcontinent. According to the legend, Malik-ibn Dinar- Mohammads message reached king Crangannur in AD 642-643 on Hijri 22, and the Chera king, Cheraman Perumal to accept Islam. Malik-Ibn-Dinar built the first mosque there. This was followed by eleven more along the coast. These mosques are some of the oldest to be established, not only India but within the Islamic world. South India Kerala Mosques Introduction- Kerala is in the middle of a mosque-building boom. Proposals for new mosques and the redevelopment of older structures have consequences on the urban landscape of this west coast state. Pan- Indian and pan- global influences sweeping across Kerala fuelled by migration to the rest of India and abroad may be the reason for this activity. Traditional mosque of Kerala (vernacular mosque) The traditional mosques in Kerala are different from those in the imperial and provincial Indo- Islamic architecture. In Kerala built form of the mosque derived enough from local domestic building traditions. In traditional dwellings like Nalaketts, the concerns of torrential rain and the need for the ventilation found expression in remarkable roof and wall elements, executed in abundantly available timber. In Kerala, the temple, churches and the Mosque (palli) take from the local architecture evolved from local climate, materials. The mosque was constructed under the guidance of religious leaders whose requirements were functional and simple, using the model of existing places of worship. A traditional mosque in the Malabar comprises of a rectangular prayer hall with a mihrab on the western wall (qibla) and enclosed verandah on the sides that serve as spill over space. A front verandah facing the street becomes a space that often leads to a front hall preceding the main prayer hall. An ablution tank is accommodated on one side. The entire structure is raised on a high plinth/ base, similar to the adhisthana of a temple. The tiled roof has elaborate covered gables. The structural system for the hall is of timber posts, beams, and brackets and often the columns are square or octagonal as in the temple mandapa pillar. Nakhudas or ship builders sculpted the mimbars in many Mosques, representing the very best skills in wood-carving. Mishkaal mosque Kuttichira Most of the Malabar mosques built in the 6th centuries are in Kozhikoda(Kalikat), Mallapuram, Thalassery and cochin. This time the basic building construction material was bamboo. A brief case study of two mosques in Kuttichira, a Mappila neighborhood in Kozhikode is presented here. In Kuttichira, centered on the sacred Kuttichira tankand all mosque of Kuttichira was construced with local timber material. Miskaal palli mosque is having a largest rectangular hall and tiled roofs at fourth levels- housing subsidiary space. The existing building is dated as 1578. It sits in close association with the tank. Not very far is the Jamaat Palli, the Friday mosque, on the other side of the tank. This is smaller in size and at am awkward angle to the narrow street, proclaiming an exact orientation to Mecca. Its front porch is marked by the heavily carved gable; matched by an exquisite timber ceiling, with floral, geometric and calligraphic motifs. It has two light wells, one over the ablution tank and another in side in the prayer hall. The forms of light wells remind us of the four sides. The oldest inscription in the mosque dates from 1480-81 covered on a wooden lintel on the ante chamber. CHERAMAN JUMA MASJID, KODUNGALLAUR. This is the first and oldest mosque of India. The first renovation of the mosque was completed in the 11th century. And later in 1974, the masjid president P.A. Mohammed Sayed added the extension, after demolishing the front portion of the old mosque during renovation. The oldest part of the mosque, including the sanction sanctorum, was left untouched. It was renovated again in 1996 and 2003, by adding extension to accommodate more capacity of 3000 people. While the oldest part will be restored, the desire for a grand size still remains. Surrounded by shops and homes. And a community institution is situated within the building. The original structure did not look like the mosques of the west and rather resembles vernacular buildings. This was double stored with sloping tiled thatched roof. This mosque also does not not look like the mosques of north India, with no calligraphy used on the wall and no minarets found with the mosque. The entrance gate is very simple and inviting. The main room is part of the original structure. This is a very small area for the mosque. Only 15 people can stand in a single row for prayer. The main room was built with old timber, with a big brass lamp hanging from the roof, which may have been a Hindu temple lamp. West JAMA MASJID OF AHMEDABAD Location This is the vernacular mosque of is made of yellow sand stone.This is the oldest mosque of Ahmedabad, built during in 1424 the reign of Ahmad Shah. This mosque is laying in the Mahatma Gandhi Road of teen Darwaza,

Saturday, January 18, 2020

The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Nighttime

The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Nighttime is a 2003 novel written by the British author Mark Haddon. It won the 2003 Whitbread Book of the Year, and the Commonwealth Writers’’ Prize for best first book. Christopher, fifteen-year-old boy with behavioral problems, lives with his father in Swindon, England. His mother has been dead for over 2 years. He discovers the dead body of Wellington, the neighbor’s dog, speared by a garden fork, and Christopher decides to write a mystery murder novel about the dog. One day his father found the book and hide it from him, and when Christopher goes for a search he finds a bunch of letters directed to him from his mother. With the letters he realizes that his mom is not dead and she had left them. His dad confesses that he was the one who had killed the dog, and because of that Christopher left his house with the fear of being killed by his dad, he goes to London to find his mother. After reunited with his mother they return to Swindon, where he takes his A-level exam and get an A grade. The book ends with Christopher optimistic about his future, having solved the mystery of the murdered dog, gone to London on his own, found his mother, written a book, and achieved an A in his A-level math’s exam. The book takes part in England; only two different cities were visited, London and Swindon. The book starts in Swindon, where Christopher lives with his father, the same places were he finds the dead dog and stars his murder mystery novel. When Christopher finds out that her mother was living in London and that she was not dead he was very confused: â€Å"Mother had never lived in London† (98) that was when he just read the first letter and did not knew what to think. That is why he goes to London. The time of the book is in the end of the 20th century and we are able to know because of the dates inside the letters. However in my opinion the setting is not very important in this book. The main character of the story is Christopher and he is the one telling the story. â€Å"My name is Christopher John Francis Boone. I know all the countries of the world and their capital cities and every prime number up to 7,057† (2). He is a very interesting character; he has Asperger Syndrome, which is a type of autism. Because of that it is very difficult to find out what he is thinking, however the author is able to interpret it very good. There are many other characters in the story but in my opinion the next most important is his father. He treats Christopher really nice, even though his syndrome. He is a very good father but he sometimes looses his patience and reacts explosively. In the other hand Christopher’s mother is another important part of the story, but she appears later on in the book. She is a good mother, loving Christopher very much, but she thinks that she is not, that is the reason she fled. The style in the book is very important, because there was a lot of effort in the writing. He interprets the point of view of the autistic boy very precise. â€Å"Haddon worked with autistic individuals† (0) making its work with a deep meaning and very accurate to a real autistic boy. More over the book is written in 1st person from beginning to end: â€Å"It was seven minutes after midnight. † (1) Evidence about it being written in 1st person. The main idea of the book is to create and accurate point of view of the life of a boy with Asperger syndrome. Haddon is able to do it; he was able to do a very deep search into the mind of an autistic boy by studying them and working with them personally. The moral of the story is that people with Asperger syndrome are normal, even though they look different. They have feelings and they are very smart, the difference is that they have really bad social skills and have problems connecting ideas and a several behavioral problems: â€Å"These are some of my behavioral problems A) No talking to people for a long time F) smashing things when I am angry or confused O) hitting other people† (47) Christopher talking about his behavioral problems, it is very curious how he has them very clearly in his mind but keeps doing them. The idea of the book is very important and is well interpreted, creating a clear view of it and the moral. The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time is a very interesting novel, filled with exciting changes in the story and a unexpected end. However I thought it was very slow at the beginning and the middle, making it a little boring in some chapters. Haddon does interpret amazingly the mind of an autistic boy, which in my opinion is one of the best parts of the book. It is very easy to read and that makes it good for bad readers. In an overall view I did like this book and would recommend it to others.

Friday, January 10, 2020

A Day in a Life: a Summary of the Case and Some Questions Essay

* Summary of the case This case shows a daily working life of Rachel, the project manager of a large information systems project, to mainly discuss whether she allocates her time appropriately or not. When we take a closer look at her works on that certain day, then we can classify those works into three parts: project related, non- project related, and routine works. After analyzing those works each by each, therefore we are able to get the concept easily of whether Rachel has been playing a good role in project manager. No matter the answer turns out to be yes or not, we still can improve her work schedule more efficient by viewing the result of our analysis. * Answers of the questions 1. How effectively do you think Rachel spent her day? Based on the whole day schedule provided by the case, I would like to make a table to address how effectively Rachel spent her day. The consequence above shows that Rachel spent around 70% of her working time dealing directly with project related work. Due to everyone has different aspects in judging how effectively of Rachel regarding to the figure, from my point of view, when a manager who can spend his or her time on project work beyond 65%, then I would probably consider he or her is an effective project manager. So, therefore, in this case, Rachel is no doubt to be positive asset to her company for sure. See more: Beowulf essay essay 2. What does the case tell you about what it is like to be a project manager? a. Outlining specific goal for teammates As an appropriate project management, he or she must act like a captain of a big ship understanding exactly which way we should move on in the center of the huge ocean. Project management not only has to have good sense of direction, but also has to monitor what is going on in each phase. People says that the performance of the team is not determined by the most outstanding teammates, instead; is determined by the weakest one. That is being said, making sure the slowest part to catch up the pace of the whole team is one of the imperative job of project manager. b. Integrating diversified workers from different department One of the most hardest and special part of being a product manager is to integrate diversified people from different department. Due to project team sometimes is temporary and short, different field’s people they don’t know each other well, so that it might occur lots of conflicts during cooperating period of time. From my personal experience over the past few years, tasks failed not because workers didn’t have the ability to fulfill the task itself which was because they spent too much energy and time on dealing with each other because each individual has his or her opinions. Therefore, if project manager doesn’t have outstanding social skills to lead each worker, no matter how smart he is, then he is not able to complete the mission as he expect. c. Being an optimistic cheerleader and powerful coordinator between each department Most of time working is frustrated especially as a member of a new team. Sometimes, workers not only have to be responsible to project manager but they also still have to do original tasks from their regular team. How can they be cheerful if pressures come from both sides of the supervisor? Thus, project manager somehow should be a cheerleader to give these teammates some sort of incentives such as extra bonus or holidays, asked from big boss, to motivate them to get the tasks done as soon as possible. Moreover, product manager needed to be powerful in order to coordinate conflicting issues between each department. Take this case for example. Client firm is upset because they didn’t get certain features which promised by marketing representative and Rachel had no clues about it until she hears from one of the members. We all know project manager is of course the head of the project, but if Rach el has no power to get the features promised my marketing representative to her client, and then next time her client won’t become company’s loyal customer again. d. Take full responsibility that project is completely successful within time and budget Unlike other functional manager, project manager takes full responsibility in entire project which should be successful within time and budget (professor mentioned in reality it is better to beyond the budget in order to get extra amount of money for next one). So, from this point of view, there is no other job like project manager in terms of huge pressure. On the other hand, some people might think to be a project manager can feel a great deal of sense of achievement as long as finishing the task. Therefore, project manager is a job which needs all kinds of ability including organizing, allocating resources, communicating, cheering people, coordinating, politic skill, and so on. * Insights of the case A number of things I have learned from this case. First of all, Rachel, even though, spent 70% of her daily working time on dealing with project’s work directly, it doesn’t mean that she did effectively in the project itself. In other words, she still can save her time by taking care of client firm issue thoroughly and cautiously. Again, let’s take client firm’s case for instance. Regarding to the time table above, Rachel spent 130mins (25% of her total working time) just on handling this case! Is there any other way to prevent this kind of incident happened? Answer would be yes by having a great report system among each department’s head and Project manager, so that before things going to the public or to client’s side, they still have a plenty of chances to make it right, otherwise; they have no choice but to waste more costs (time and money) to correct it again. Moreover than that, clients might have a negative experience on it and start to doubt whether this company has enough ability to handle this project. So, my point is that if Rachel were powerful enough; she would be able to handle this project more effectively. Thus, her boss needs to give her adequate resources during this period of time. As a project manager, although she has power in hand, she also has to use it very careful, otherwise as project team dismissed in the future, then she would face a big problem in terms of working with her fellow workers. This is really a good case which gives me a whole profile of being a project manager. With this case’s help, I feel more knowledgeable of learning Project Management this class in this semester. * Reference 1. By answering the question 2 above, I referred to text book page 10, the topic of â€Å"The Project Manager†, which giving me a several numbers of responsibilities that project manager should have. 2. Slides in Chapter 1 (slides 1-11 and 1-12) also give me some points of view that what skills are needed as being a project manager.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

What Was the Sussex Pledge of 1916

The Sussex Pledge was a promise given by the German Government to the United States of America on May 4, 1916, in response to US demands relating to the conduct of the First World War. Specifically, Germany promised to alter its naval and submarine policy of unrestricted submarine warfare to stop the indiscriminate sinking of non-military ships. Instead, merchant ships would be searched and sunk only if they contained contraband, and then only after safe passage had been provided for the crew and passengers. The Sussex Pledge Issued On March 24, 1916, a German submarine in the English Channel attacked what it thought was a minelaying ship. It was actually a French passenger steamer called The Sussex and, although it didnt sink and limped into port, fifty people were killed. Several Americans were injured and, on April 19th, the US President (Woodrow Wilson) addressed Congress on the issue. He gave an ultimatum: Germany should end attacks on passenger vessels, or face America breaking off diplomatic relations. Germanys Reaction Its a huge understatement to say Germany didnt want America to enter the war on the side of her enemies, and the breaking off of diplomatic relations was a step in this direction. Germany thus responded on May 4th with a pledge, named after the steamer Sussex, promising a change in policy. Germany would no longer sink anything it wanted to at sea, and neutral ships would be protected. Breaking the Pledge and Leading the US into War Germany made many mistakes during World War I, as did all the nations involved, but their greatest after the decisions of 1914 came when they broke the Sussex Pledge. As the war raged on in 1916, the German High Command became convinced that, not only could they break Britain using a full policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, they could do it before America was in a position to fully join the war. It was a gamble, one based on figures: sink x amount of shipping, cripple the UK in y amount of time, establish peace before the US could arrive in z.  Consequently, on February 1, 1917, Germany broke the Sussex Pledge and returned to sinking all enemy craft. Predictably, there was outrage from the neutral nations, who wanted their ships left alone, and something of a relief from Germanys enemies who wanted the US on their side. American shipping began to sink, and these actions contributed heavily to Americas declaration of war on Germany, issued April 6, 1917. But Germany had expect ed this, after all. What they had got wrong was that with the US Navy and the use of the convoy system to protect ships, the German unrestricted campaign could not cripple Britain, and US forces began to be moved freely across the seas. Germany realized they were beaten, made one last throw of the dice in early 1918, failed there, and ultimately asked for a ceasefire. President Wilson  Comments on the Sussex Incident ...I have deemed it my duty, therefore, to say to the Imperial German Government, that if it is still its purpose to prosecute relentless and indiscriminate warfare against vessels of commerce by the use of submarines, notwithstanding the now demonstrated impossibility of conducting that warfare in accordance with what the Government of the United States must consider the sacred and indisputable rules of international law and the universally recognized dictates of humanity, the Government of the United States is at last forced to the conclusion that there is but one course it can pursue; and that unless the Imperial German Government should now immediately declare and effect an abandonment of its present methods of warfare against passenger and freight carrying vessels this Government can have no choice but to sever diplomatic relations with the Government of the German Empire altogether. This decision I have arrived at with the keenest regret; the possibility of the action contemplated I am sure all thoughtful Americans will look forward to with unaffected reluctance. But we cannot forget that we are in some sort and by the force of circumstances the responsible spokesmen of the rights of humanity, and that we cannot remain silent while those rights seem in process of being swept utterly away in the maelstrom of this terrible war. We owe it to a due regard to our own rights as a nation, to our sense of duty as a representative of the rights of neutrals the world over, and to a just conception of the rights of mankind to take this stand now with the utmost solemnity and firmness... Cited from The World War One document archive.